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2020年贵州自考英美文学选读知识点三

2020-11-21 12:49来源:未知 串讲笔记
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12.The Victorian period(维多利亚时期) 

In this period, the novel became the most widely read and the most vital and challenging expression of progressive thought. While sticking to the principle of faithful representation of the 18th century realist novel, novelists in this period carried their duty forward to criticism of the society and the defense of the mass.

2> although writing from different points of view and with different techniques, they shared one thing in common, that is, they were all concerned about the fate of the common people. They were angry with the inhuman social institutions, the decaying social morality as represented by the money-worship and Utilitarianism, and the widespread misery, poverty and injustice.

3>their truthful picture of people‘s life and bitter and strong criticism of the society had done much in awakening the public consciousness to the social problems and in the actual improvement of the society.

4> Charles Dickens is the leading figure of the Victorian period.

13. Modernism(现代主义)

Modernism is comprehensive but vague term for a  movement , which begin in the late 19th century and which has had a wide influence internationally during much of the 20th century.

2> modernism takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theoretical case.

3> the term pertains to all the creative arts. Especially poetry, fiction, drama, painting, music and architecture.

4> in England from early in the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s, in America from shortly before the first world war and on during the inter-war period, modernist tendencies were at their most active and fruitful.

5>as far as literature is concerned, Modernism reveals a breaking away from established rules, traditions and conventions. fresh ways of looking at man‘s position and function in the universe and many experiments in form and style. It is particularly concerned with language and how to use it and with writing itself.

14. Stream of consciousness(意识流)(or interior monologue)

In literary criticism, Stream of consciousness denotes a literary technique which seeks to describe an individual‘s point of view by giving the written equivalent of the character’s thought processes. Stream of consciousness writing is strongly associated with the modernist movement. Its introduction in the literary context, transferred from psychology, is attributed to May Sinclair. Stream of consciousness writing is usually regarded as a special form of interior monologue and is characterized by associative leaps in syntax and punctuation that can make the prose difficult to follow, tracing as they do a character‘s fragmentary thoughts and sensory feelings. Famous writers to employ this technique in the English language include James Joyce and William Faulkner.

学术界认为意识流是一种通过直接描述人物思维过程来寻求个人视角的文学写作技巧。意识流是现代主义运动的体现,它首先出现在心现学领域,由梅。辛克拉提出的,后引进文学领域。意识流写作通常被认为是一种特殊形式的内心独白。它的特别是联想性,以句法和标点的跳跃,文章的晦涩难懂为特征。来表现人物的片断思维和感官性直觉。比较著名的使用此技巧的有乔伊斯。福克纳。

15. American Puritanism(美国清教主义)

Puritanism was a religious reform that arose within the Church of England in the late 16th century. Under siege from church and crown, it sent an offshoot in the third and fourth decades of the 17th to the northern English colonies in the new world——a migration that laid the foundation for the religious, intellectual, and social order of New England. Puritanism, however, was not only a historically specific phenomenon coincident with the founding of new England, it was also a way of being in the world——a style of response to lived experience——that has reverberated through American life ever since. Doctrinally, puritans adhered to the five points of Calvinism as codified at the synod of dort in 1619:

1) Unconditional election: the idea that God had decreed at the synod of damned and who was saved from before the beginning of the world;

2) limited atonement: the idea that Christ died for the elect only;

3) Total depravity: humanity‘s utter corruption since the fall;

4) Irresistible grace: regeneration as entirely a work of God, which cannot be re3sisted and to which the sinner contributes nothing;

5) The perseverance of the saints: the elect, despite their backsliding and faintness of heart, cannot fall away from grace.

清教主义是16世纪晚期在英国教会内进行的一场宗教改革。在教会和皇权的双重压力之下,清教的一个分支于17世纪30,40年代迁至美洲新大陆的北方殖民地,他们为新英格兰奠定了宗教、知识和社会秩序的基础。清教主义不仅符合新英格兰成立的特定历史,而且一直反映了美国生活的一种生活方式。从教义上说,清教徒遵循加尔文派于1619年多特宗教会议上制定的五条信条:1)无条件拣选:神没有任凭人在罪中灭亡,而是在创世以前就拣选了一群人旅行拯救; 2)有限救赎: 基督的死只是为了特定数目的选民而死; 3)完全堕落:自从亚当偷吃善恶果后,整个人类都堕落了;4)不可抗拒的恩典:圣灵的能力在罪人心里运行,一直到他认罪悔改方休;5)圣徒的坚守:圣徒是神所挑选的,无论他们如何退步,始终在神的感召下。


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